Operant Conditioning is influence by both Reinforcement and punishment.
Reinforcement can be both positive and negative.
Positive reinforcement is a favorable outcome that is presented after the behaviour. Positive reinforcement is when the behaviour is continued because of the addition of something pleasant into the scenario. Such as a positive word or encouragement after completing something. In my case, positive reinforcement is used in response to school work. I try to do well and stay focused on whtat I am doing and if it is done well enough, then my Grandmother states her approval and encourages me to continue the way I have. This cause a pleasant and happy feeling and encourages a sense of accomplishment, which in turn makes me want to do well, and cause me to choose to either continue with what I was doing and seeking out that approval or not.
Negative reinforcement is the removal or stopping of something unpleasant to increase the desired behavior. In this case, most people talk about an alarm or loud noise that we find annoying and seek to stop it. People will shut off the alarm in order stop the noise. And in most cases, we need the alarm in the morning and automatically shut it off to stop the noise. For me aside for the daily alarm to wake up in the morning. The negative reinforcement is shutting off light. Since I spoke about sleep deprivation I though it fitting. In order for me to fall asleep I need to ensure that there is no light in my room. I remove (negative reinforcement) light by shutting off anything that emits light in my room. Power cords, phone, light and the door is shut to stop the light from the living room to make its way into my bedroom at night. These are all steps I take nightly to remove the light from my surroundings in order to fall asleep.