Like Reinforcement, punishment has both a negative and positive component in relation to Operant Conditioning.
Punishment is when there is a consequence to a behaviour and the consequence seeks to decrease the or stop the behaviour from happening again. Unlike reinforcement which adds or subtracts something to the situation in order to increase the behaviour, punishment adds or subtracts something or order to decrease the behaviour.
Positive punishment is when there is there is an undesirable consequence because of a behaviour and in turn causes the behaviour to decrease or stop. I have burnt my hand on a pot or pan at home because I unthinkingly touched them with out putting on the oven mitts. For this the pain is the added stimulus. Pain is the natural consequence for touching something extremely hot. It is unlikely that I would knowingly reach for a hot pan without oven mitts on again. Or I wait for my tea to cool down before I drink it. My gramma and I drink tea every night before we go to bed. We have both been impatient and burnt out tongues instead of waiting for the tea to cool. Burning my tongue is also a a positive punishment in the regards that pain is once again and added unpleasant result of not waiting for the tea to cool down.
Negative punishment is the removal of something we find pleasant or desirable, to decrease the unwanted behaviour. I can remember more incidents at home dealing with negative punishment then positive. They are at least easier to pick out and are more readily explained. Living with my sister there were many incidents of arguing and being unpleasant to each other. Gramma and Poppa has on numerus occasions taken away our toys, or shut off the movies, thus removing something we wanted in order to get us to behave.
Operant Conditioning is influence by both Reinforcement and punishment.
Reinforcement can be both positive and negative.
Positive reinforcement is a favorable outcome that is presented after the behaviour. Positive reinforcement is when the behaviour is continued because of the addition of something pleasant into the scenario. Such as a positive word or encouragement after completing something. In my case, positive reinforcement is used in response to school work. I try to do well and stay focused on whtat I am doing and if it is done well enough, then my Grandmother states her approval and encourages me to continue the way I have. This cause a pleasant and happy feeling and encourages a sense of accomplishment, which in turn makes me want to do well, and cause me to choose to either continue with what I was doing and seeking out that approval or not.
Negative reinforcement is the removal or stopping of something unpleasant to increase the desired behavior. In this case, most people talk about an alarm or loud noise that we find annoying and seek to stop it. People will shut off the alarm in order stop the noise. And in most cases, we need the alarm in the morning and automatically shut it off to stop the noise. For me aside for the daily alarm to wake up in the morning. The negative reinforcement is shutting off light. Since I spoke about sleep deprivation I though it fitting. In order for me to fall asleep I need to ensure that there is no light in my room. I remove (negative reinforcement) light by shutting off anything that emits light in my room. Power cords, phone, light and the door is shut to stop the light from the living room to make its way into my bedroom at night. These are all steps I take nightly to remove the light from my surroundings in order to fall asleep.
Operant Conditions in a away of behavioural learning that is influenced by to types of concepts. Reinforcement and punishment. Learning by operant conditioning is a process that is directed towards teaching someone to act or respond to a certain situation and guiding them to the desired behavioural response. Operant conditioning is a way in which we learn though consequences and rewards. We either have something pleasant or negative added to the situation in order to get the desired response from the person the lesion is directed towards.
We have all been influenced by Operant conditioning. This form of learning is a voluntary and thought out response in accordance to the consequences of the behaviour. We learn and respond by actively choosing to do something based on the results that we will get out of it.
We seek out approval socially and academically. Positive praise and encouragement would be considered a positive reinforcement that encourages the continuation of a certain behaviour. In other cases, negative reinforcement or punishments are used, most notably by parents and teachers to deter certain behaviour and put a stop to something they find undesirable.
The scheduling and timing of receiving the award or punishment also have a factor in operant conditioning.
Steps and improvements on how to avoid getting sleep deprived.
There are a few factors that affect how you sleep. Health and exercise, time management, and setting up a structured routine.
There are ways to try and prevent getting sleep deprived. And for me it comes down to time management and routine. There are always going to be nights here and there that are interrupted or not long enough for a proper night of sleep. Just last night I had to break up a cat fight twice because my lovely animals decided that midnight and 2 am are the perfect play times. They certainly do not help with keeping with routine. However, I have I few things that I am now trying to do on a daily basis.
A few months ago, I decided that I was going to test out the theory that electronic in the bedroom affect your sleep. For this was true. I used to have my games and TV in my bedroom. I had easy access to my tv and tended to stay up later because of it. By removing those items from my bedroom, I was able to associate my room as just my own personal, quiet room where I sleep. Activities, crafts, socializing and the TV were all removed from my bedroom setting. I found that I could sleep better and I was less distracted before bed.
In part I have kept my sleeping routine of getting up early and going to bed early. Time management is going to be a factor in the future with my school work and I am going to have to try and get batter at that. Something to work towards. I take an hour every night before I head to bed to read, just for myself. It’s a quiet calming activity and I avoid my text readings and school work for that hour.
Food and exercise are another factor that I have taken into consideration. I do not exercise though going with my grandmother for a walk a couple of times a week is starting to become part of the routine. Food though is something I have taken a little bit more control over. I never used to eat breakfast. Now I’ve got myself no longer grabbing a bowl of cereal the odd time to having a large smoothie on the way to school or to work daily. Taking ten minutes to pack a healthier lunch instead of buying fast food at school or at work has also become part of the routine.
I am more consciously aware of these steps that help with your overall health and the ability that routine and health go hand in hand when it comes to how well you sleep.
Lack of sleep has in impact on how you feel emotionally and physically.
If you do not get enough sleep, you are more then likely going to feel tired and irritable and less likely to care about your overall wellbeing and health. You have less motivation and energy. Even if you know that you should do something to kick you body into gear, a quick meal high in sugar and less nutritional value is sought out instead of taking the time to prepare anything properly. I go the cereal, granola bar or skip breakfast entirely. Lunch tends to be a pizza slice and pop. Dinner I think is the only meal that is ever a proper meal for me when I’m over tire and that is only because I live with my grandparents and Gramma has supper made by time I get home.
The lack of nutrients on grabbing quick and high in sugar does nothing to help in the long run. It does serve to keep you going, but the crash and add feeling of exhaustion if you don’t continue with the intake adds to the stress on you body. Also, adding to the chance that you will be restless or unable to fall asleep depending on when you had sugar or caffeine. Again, keeping with a cycle of interrupted sleep.
Health impacts because of the lack of sleep and decent food ensures that your body is going to eventually react. Mine did, with those two weeks of going to bed late, getting up early and not eating properly my body eventually decided enough is a enough and crashed. I ended up getting sick and it took me another week to get over it.
Sleep deprivation also affects your emotional stability and becomes a cause of irritability, quicker to anger, and easily frustrated.
This became readily apparent at work and at school. I was easily distracted, more fidgety and unable to focus entirely on my readings or lessons. At work, I was quickly frustrated when something didn’t work out properly or as easily as it should have. I work at a grocery store and I have to deal with talking to people and answering questions smoothly and polity. When I am over tired my bearing and tone change and it becomes more apparent to the customers and coworkers. When your overtired your quicker to respond negatively to something, and in a professional setting it can be very detrimental.
Classical Conditioning is form of behavioural learning that has an impact on how we learn, behave and respond according to different influences and incidents that has happened to us overtime or during one bigger and more memorable occurrence.
Usually classical conditioning is a learned behaviour through paired association over time. A repeated response to a repeated action, thing or sound. In some cases, though you can be conditioned to respond to something in the same or similar manner, to something that initiated a strong natural response at the time. A more traumatic and in turn more memorable incident. Such as an car accident and then being nervous around vehicles. Until the accident your fine around cars and have no reason to feel nervous or scared. After it becomes a learned or conditioned response, as you have a cause and reason to feel and react in such a way.
Classical Conditioning is can be separated into 5 different components.
The UCS , UCR,NS,CS and CR.
The UCS is the unconditioned stimulus, essentially that means something that has no prior response from you. You may know what the stimulus is, and use it for its intended purpose. Or see/hear it on a regular basis and have no reason to associate it with anything other than what it is.
The UCR is the unconditioned response. Your natural instinctive response to something.
The NS is the Neutral Stimulus. which Is also an unconditioned or unassociated thing that does not initially cause a reaction.
The CS is the Conditioned Stimulus. This is the previously Neutral Stimulus that now elicits a conditioned or taught response.
The CR is the Conditioned response to the Conditioned Stimulus. This means that you now respond in a conditioned or learned manner to the prior Unconditioned Stimulus.
How classical Conditioning Affects me.
When I was younger, my family would spend the summer at a campsite. We had a trailer and boat and spent a lot of time at the trailer park. We had a large playground in the middle of the park we all the kids could go to play. It was here that I became petrified of bees. Prior to getting stung, I was fine with bees. Being at the park all the time with the lilac trees, flowers and sweat foods that people packed and had at the park all the time, I was no stranger to the critters that constantly buzzed around us. Getting in our drinks, landing on our food and in the gardens. For me that’s the Unconditioned Stimulus. I had no prior reaction to bees other then annoyance when they got around our food.
While playing in the park with my sister one day I was going down the big slide. Sliding down I had my hands resting on the edge of the slide to help keep my balance. By doing this my hand passed over a bee that had landed on the slide. I got stung on the palm of my hand. Instantly started screaming and crying. My gramma tells me the whole park heard and possible the neighbouring ones as well. Instant reaction on my grandparent’s part though, and it wasn’t long before they were trying to figure out what had happened. For me the Unconditioned Response was the reactions of fear and pain as crying. Crying is a natural bodily response that is not a learned or taught behaviour.
Bees have become a conditioned stimulus in my life. I associate them with pain and instantly respond to that. Its not the same response as it was when I first got stung. I do not break into tears every time a Bee is in my personal space. However, I do get tense, short of breath and usually jump away and if at home go inside until the bee is gone. That feeling of fear is now a Conditioned Response.
Generalization and discrimination for Classical Conditioning
Generalization in classical conditioning is when you respond to something that similar but not exact to the Conditioned stimulus. As a separate example, say you got bit by a small dog like a terrier and are now afraid of all dogs. Big or small they all initiate a fear response from you. You’ve generalized your response to include all types and not just the one.
Discrimination in classical conditioning is when your respond specifically to the conditioned stimulus. Keeping with the previous example, if your fear response is only associated with terriers, then its become a discriminated response and your fine around all other dogs.
My response to bees is a generalized response and not discrimination.
I my case I have generalized my fear response to bees. I do not just react to bees alone but rather I strongly react to the sound more then the sight of bees. I do react to the sight but sound is the trigger to the initial response. So long is its near and makes a buzzing sound? I will instantly get jumpy and nervous. It could be a fly or other insect that makes a buzzing sound and I’ll respond thinking that it’s a bee. I calm down once I notice is not a bee and continue with whatever it was I was doing. Once I see that there is in fact a bee near me though, there is usually no hesitation. I’m back in my house until its gone.
Sleep Deprivation Introduction.
What is sleep deprivation is the build of lack of proper sleep. It is recommended that people receive a constant routine of 6-8 hours of sleep a night. For some people, they do not need the full 8 hours, I am not one of those people. I need to have 7 or 8 hours of proper sleep on a regular basis. If I don’t then my everyday life can be affected. Health, emotional responses, awareness and focus.
Because I have recently come back to school, I have been reminded of how being in a routine and able to receive a good night sleep affects me. I have always been able to try and keep on a basic routine of getting up around the same time everyday and going to bed around the same time every night.
Before I started school, I would get up at 5:30 am go to work for 7, have some free time after work at 4 and then I would go to bed around 10. I have tried to keep to that same routine for school. Though just recently when we had midterms lack of sleep had an impact on how I did at work and personally with my health. I didn’t follow my schedule for the week leading into midterms and the week during midterms. I stayed up latter, not going to bed until 11:30 or 12 and Still got up for the day at 5 am. In the end I got worn down and sick, because I didn’t sleep properly and in response didn’t eat properly either.